Does High Intelligence Mean Low Cognitive Bias?

Think Without Cognitive Bias

In thinking through any complex issue, there are going to be different possible solutions and perspectives. Ideally, a smart and critical thinker would reason through the pros and cons of the different possibilities and come to a balanced view of the issue. Yet a great deal of research finds that … [Read more...]

Argumentation Is More Than Just Knowing Why You Are Right

Basic Argumentation

Argumentation is the thought process used to develop and present arguments. It is closely related to critical thinking and reasoning. Argumentation belongs among the essential 21st century cognitive skills. We face complex issues that require careful, balanced reasoning to resolve. Perhaps for … [Read more...]

Spotting Fallacious Arguments

fallacious argument

Starting an argument with someone can be a great way to learn more about a topic. Arguments help us check our own thinking, come to terms with someone else’s reasoning, and occasionally even arrive at a shared understanding about what we believe to be true. Everyday arguments are often messy. The … [Read more...]

Why Overconfidence Occurs and How to Overcome It


Overconfidence happens to all of us. Ever have a plan that just couldn’t go wrong? And then you get a kick in the butt. Ever know that something must be true, only to find out later that you had it backwards? Overconfidence is when you think you are more likely to be right than you actually … [Read more...]

Confirmation Bias: 3 Effective (and 3 Ineffective) Cures

Confirmation bias

Confirmation bias is a fancy way of describing our human inclination to see what we want to see. In other words, we like to look for and interpret information in ways that confirm our expectations. The language makes it sound like confirmation bias is something only scientists can be afflicted … [Read more...]

Critical Thinking in Decision Making

critical thinking in decision making

Critical thinking is often talked about as a stand-alone activity. Like some other individual activities, thinking critically may just feel good. Yet, critical thinking seems most useful when it aids other cognitive processes, such as applying critical thinking in decision making. Anne Helsdingen … [Read more...]

Want to Be Smart? First, Know How Little You Know

Want to be smart - explain deeply

We tend to think we understand how things work in much more detail than we actually do. Accepting this can be difficult.You can use it as a first step to deepen your knowledge by improving your metacognition. Metacognition means, in part, to know how much you know about a topic. Scientists … [Read more...]

Write to Decide

How to make a decision? Write about it.

When you need to know how to make a decision, some suggest that you “go with your gut,” acting quickly and instinctively. Others suggest analytical approaches that may involve computation of the anticipated value of options, based on numerically expressed likelihoods and utilities. Each of these … [Read more...]